Skip to main content

Akamigbo, F.O.R. 1984.  The accuracy of field textures in a humid tropical environment.  Soil Survey and Land Evaluation4 63 – 70.

Alvim, P. de T. 1978.  Perspectiva de producao agricola na regiao Amazonica.  Interciencia 3 343 – 349.

Andrade, J.L., Meinzer, F.C., Goldstein, G. & Schnitzer, S.A. 2005.  Water uptake and transport in lianas and co-occurring trees of a seasonally dry forest.  Trees – structure and function19 282 – 289.

Ashton, P.S. & Hall, P. 1992.  Comparisons of structure among dipterocarp forests of northwestern Borneo.  Journal of Ecology 80 459 – 481.

Auxtero, E., van Ranst, E & Sagakami, K. 1996. Properties and related management implications o0f major soils of Bukidom, Philippines.  Soil Science 161 46 – 57.

Baillie, I. C. 1996.  Soils of the humid tropics. In P.W. Richards The tropical rain forest: an ecological study.  2nd edition. pp 256 – 286. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Baillie, I. C. 2001.  Book review of ‘Soil Survey Staff. 1999. Soil Taxonomy.  Second edition. Handbook 436, Natural Resources Conservation Service, US Department of Agriculture, Washington DC.’  Soil Use & Management 17 57 – 60.

Baillie, I. C. & Mamit, J.D. 1983.  Observations on rooting in Mixed Dipterocarp forest, Central Sarawak.  Malaysian Forester 46 369-374.

Baillie, I.C., Ashton, P.S., Chin, S.P., Davies, S.J., Palmiotto, P.A., Russo, S.E. & Tan S.  2006.  Spatial associations of humus, nutrients and soils in mixed dipterocarp forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology 22543 – 553

Barberis, I.M. & Tanner, E.V.J. 2005.  Gaps and root trenching increase tree seedling growth in a Panamanian semi-evergreen forest.  Ecology 86 667 – 674.

Becker, P., Rabenold, P.E., Idol, J.R. & Smith, A.P. 1988.  Water potential gradients for gaps and slopes in a Panamanian tropical moist forest’s dry season.  Journal of Tropical Ecology 4 173 – 184.

Becker, P. & Anyani, C. 1990.  Root architecture of shrubs and saplings in the understory of a tropical moist forest in lowland Panama.  Biotropica 22 242 – 249

Bennett, H.H. 1926.  Some comparisons of the properties of humid-tropical and humid-temperate American soils; with special reference to indicated relations between chemical composition and physical properties.  Soil Science 21349 –375.

Bennett, H.H. 1929.  Soil reconnaissance of the Panama Canal Zone and contiguous territory.  USDA Technical Bulletin 94, 1 – 46

Bern, C.R., Townsend, A.R. & Farmer, G.L. 2005.  Unexpected dominance of parent-material strontium in a tropical forest on highly weathered soils. Ecology 86 626 – 632.

Bhattacharyya, T., Pal, D.K. & Srivastava, P. 1999.  Role of zeolites in the persistence of high altitude ferruginous Alfisols of the humid tropical Western Ghats, India.  Geoderma 90 263 – 276.

Brenes-Arguedas, T. & Coley, P.D. 2005.  Phenotypic variation and structure of secondary chemistry in a natural population of a tropical tree species.  Oikos108, 410 – 423.

Brokaw, N.L.L. 996.  Treefalls: frequency, timing and consequences.  Pp 101 – 108 in Ecology of  a tropical rain forest (Eds E.G. Leigh, Jr,  D.M. Rand & D.M Windsor) Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

Brown, S., Lugo, A.E., Silander, S. & Liegel, L. 1983.  Research history and opportunities in the Luquillo Experimental Forest.  General Technical Report SO-44, Forest Service, US Department of Agriculture, New Orleans.

Bush, M.K. & Colinvaux, P.A. 1990. A pollen record of a complete glacial cycle from lowland Panama.  Journal of Vegetation Science1, 105 – 188.

Catapan, 1970.  See ‘Maps & Imagery’ below.

Cavalier, J. 1992. Fine root biomass and soil properties in a semi-deciduous and a lower montane rain forest in Panama.  Plant & Soil 142, 187 – 201.

Chadwick, O.A. 2006.  Soil development in the Hawaiian Islands.  18th World Congress of Soil Science, Philadelphia. 71-1.

Chave, J. Condit, R., Lao, S., Caspersen, J.P., Foster, R.B., & Hubbell, S.P. 2003.  Spatial and temporal variation of biomass in a tropical forest: results from a large census plot in Panama.  Journal of Ecology 91, 240 – 252.

Chorover, J. & Amistadi, M.K. 2001.  Reaction of forest floor organic matter at goethite, birnessite and smectite surfaces.  Geochimica & Cosmochimica Acta 65 95 – 109.

Chorover, J., Amistadi, M.K. & Chadwick, O.A. 2004. Surface charge evolution of mineral-organic complexes during pedogenesis Hawaiian basalts.  Geochimica & Cosmochimica Acta 68 4859 – 4876.

Clayden, B. & Hollis, J.M. 1984.  Criteria for differentiating soils series. Technical Monograph 17, Soil survey of England & Wales, Harpenden, UK. vi + 159 pp

Cline, M.G. 1955. Relationships among soils of Hawaii.  Pp 67 – 88 in ‘Soil survey. Territory of Hawaii. (Ed. M.G. Cline).  Soil Conservation Service, US Department of Agriculture & Hawaii Agricultural Experimental Station.

Coates, A.G. & Obando, J.A. 1996. The geologic evolution of the Central American isthmus. Pp 21-56 in ‘Evolution and environment in Tropical America’ (Jackson, J.B.C., Budd, A.F. & Coates, A.G., Eds), University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Colinvaux, P.A. 1996.  Quaternary environmental history and forest diversity in the neotropics.  Pp 359 – 406.  in ‘Evolution and environment in Tropical America’ (Jackson, J.B.C., Budd, A.F. & Coates, A.G., Eds), University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Condit, R. 1998. Tropical forest census plots: Methods and results from Barro Colorado Island, Panama and a comparison with other plots. Springer Verlag, Berlin. xi + 211 pp.

Condit, R, Hubbell, S. & Foster, R. 1995.  Mortality rates of 205 neotropical tree and shrub species and the impact of severe drought.  Ecological Monographs 65 419 – 439.

Condit, R., Hubbell, S.P. & Foster, R.B. 1996.  Changes in tree species abundance in a neotropical forest: impact of climate change.  Journal of Tropical Ecology 12 231 – 256.

Cornejo, F.H., Varela, A. & Wright, S.J. 1994.  Tropical forest litter decomposition under seasonal drought,: Nutrient release, fungi and bacteria.  Oikos 70 183 – 190.

Couto, W., Sanzonwizc & Barcellos, A. de O. 1985.  Factors affecting oxidation and reduction processes in an Oxisol with a seasonal water table. Soil Science Society of America Journal 49 1245 – 1248.

Croat, T.B. 1978.  Flora of Barro Colorado Island.  Stanford University Press, Stanford. 943 pp.

Curi, N. & Franzmeier, D.P. 1987. Effects of parent rocks on chemical and mineralogical properties of some oxisols in Brazil.  Soil Science Society of America Journal 51 153  – 158.

Davies, S.J., Tan, S., LaFrankie, J.V., & Potts, M.D. 2005.  Soil-related floristic variation in the hyperdiverse dipterocarp forest in Lambir Hills, Sarawak. pp 22 – 37 in Pollination Ecology and Rain Forest Diversity, Sarawak Studies. (Eds D.W. Roubik, S. Sakai & A., Hamid) Springer-Verlag, New York.

Daws, M.I., Mullins, C., Burslem, D., Paton, R. & Dalling, J. 2002.  Topographic position affects the water regime in a semi-deciduous tropical forest in Panama.  Plant & Soil 238, 79 – 90.

Deckers, J., Spaargaren, O., Nachtergaele, F., Berdig, F., Ahrens, R., Micheli, E. & Schad, P. 2005.  Rationale for the key and the qualifiers of the WRB 2006.  Eurasian Soil Science38 Supplement, S6 – S12.

Deng, Y.-J., Dixon, J.B. & White, G.N. 2003.  Intercalation and surface modification of smectite by two non-ionic surfactants.  Clays and Clay Minerals 51 150 – 161.

Dent, D. & Young, A. 1981. Soil survey and land evaluation. George Allen & Unwin, London, UK.

Dietrich, W.E., Windsor, D.M. & Dunne, T. 1996.  Geology, climate and hydrology of Barro Colorado Island.  In ‘The ecology of a tropical forest, Seasonal rhythms and long term changes.’ (Eds. Leigh, E.G. Jr., Rand, A.S. & Windsor, D.M.) 2nd edition. Pp 21 – 46. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA.

FAO 1979.  Soil survey investigations for irrigation.  Soils Bulletin 42, Food & Agriculture Organisation of United nations, Rome, Italy.

F.A.O. 1998. World reference base for soils.  World Soil Resources Report 84. Food & Agriculture Organisation of United Nations, Rome, Italy.

Fedoroff, N. & Eswaran, H. 1985. Micromorphology of Ultisols. Soil Science Society of America, Special Publication 15145 – 164.

Foote, D.E., Hill, E.L., Nakamura, S. & Stephens, F, 1972.  Soil survey of Kauai, Oahu, Maui, Molokai and Lanai, State of Hawaii.  Soil Conservation Service, US Department of Agriculture & University of Hawaii Agricultural Experimental Station.

Forbes, T., Rossiter, D. & van Wambeke, A. 1984.  Guidelines for evaluating the adequacy of soil resource inventories.  Soil Survey and Land Evaluation Technical Monograph 4, Soil Management Support Services, Cornell, NY. .

Foster, R.B. &  Brokaw, N.L.L  1996. Structure and history of the vegetation of Barro Colorado Island. Pp 67 – 82 in Ecology of  a tropical rain forest (Eds E.G. Leigh, Jr,  D.M. Rand & D.M Windsor) Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

Gunatilleke, C.V.S., Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N., Esufali, S., Ashton, P.M.S., Burslem, D.F.R.P. & Ashton, P.S.  2006.  Species – habitat associations in a Sri Lankan dipterocarp forest.  Journal of Tropical Ecology 22 371 – 384.

Hare, P.W. & Gardner, T.W. 1985.  Geomorphic indications of vertical neo-tectonism along converging plate margins, Nicoya Peninsula, Cost Rica. In ‘Tectonic geomorphology’ (Eds. Morisawa, M., & Hack, J.T.), pp 75 –104.  Allen & Unwin, Boston, USA.

Harms, K., Condit, R., Hubbell, S.P. & Foster, R.B. 2001.  Habitat associations of trees and shrubs in a 50 ha neotropical forest plot.  Journal of Ecology 89, 947 – 959.

Harms. K.E., Powers, J.S. & Montgomery, R.E. 2004.  Variation in small sapling density, understorey cover, and resource availability in four neotropical forest. Biotropica 36 40 – 51.

Hedin, L.O., Vitousek, P.M & Mason, P.A. 2003.  Pathways and implications of nutrient loss during four million years of tropical forest ecosystem development.  Ecology 84 2231 – 2235.

Hudson, B.D. 1992.  The soil survey as paradigm-based science. Soil Science Society of America Journal 56, 836 -841

Hue, N.V., Vega, S. & Silva, J.A. 2001.  Manganese toxicity in a Hawaiian oxisol affected by soil pH and organic amendments.  Soils Science Society of America 65 153 – 160.

Jackson, P.C., Cavelier, J., Goldstein, G., Meinzer, F.C. & Holbrook, N.M. 1995.  Partitioning of water resources among [plants of a lowland tropical forest.  Oecologia 101, 197 – 203

Jannet, R., Guillet, B., Robert, M., Ranger, J, & Veneau, G. 1996.  Study of current dynamics of soils from a podzol-oxisol sequence in Tahiti (French Polynesia) using the test mineral technique.  Geoderma 73 107 – 124.

Jenny, H. 1980.  The soil resources: origin and behaviour.  Springer Verlag, New York, USA. xx + 377 pp.

John, R., Dalling, J.W., Harms, K.E., Yavitt, J.B., Stallard, R.F., Mirabello, M., Hubbell, S.P., Valencia, R., Navraette, H., Vellejo, M. & Foster, R.B. 2007.  Soil nutrients influence spatial distribution of tropical tees species.  Proceedings of National Academy of Science 104 864 –869.

Johnson, D.W. & Todd, D.E. 1983.  Relationships among iron, aluminium, carbon and sulfate in a variety of forest soils.  Soil Science Society of America Journal47 792 – 800.

Johnsson M.J. & Stallard, R.F. 1989. Physiographic controls on the composition of sediments derived from volcanic and sedimentary terrains on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.  Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 59, 768 – 781.

Karathanasis, A.D. & Hajek, B.F. 1983.  Transformation of smectite to kaolinite in naturally acid soil systems.  Structural and thermodynamic considerations. Soil Science Society of America Journal 47 158 – 163

Karathanasis, A.D. & Hajek, B.F. 1985.  Shrink-swell potential of montmorillonitic soils in udic moisture regimes. Soil Science Society of America Journal 49 159 – 166.

Kaufmann, S., Sombroek, W. & Mantel, S. 1998.  Soils of rain forests: characterisation and major constraints of dominant forest soils in the humid tropics.  Pp 10 – 28 in: ‘Soils of tropical forest ecosystems. (Eds S. Schulte & D. Ruhiyat), Springer, Berlin.

Klingebiel, A.A. & Montgomery, P.H. 1961.  Land capability classification. Soil Conservation Handbook 210, US Department pf Agriculture, Washington, D.C.

Knight, D.H. 1975.  A phytosociological analysis of species-rich tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.  Ecological Monographs 45, 259 – 284.

Kursar, T.A. 1989.  Evaluation of soil respiration and soil CO2  concentration in a lowland tropical moist forest in Panama.  Plant and Soil 113 21 – 29.

Kursar, T.A., Wright, S.J. & Radulovich, R. 1995.  The effects of the rainy season and irrigation on soil water and oxygen in a seasonal forest in Panama.  Journal of Tropical Ecology 11, 497 – 515.

Landon, J.R. (ed.) 1984.  Booker tropical soil manual.  Booker Agriculture International, London & Longman, Harlow.  xiv + 450 pp.

Lee, H.S., Ashton, P.S., Yamakura, T., Tan, S., Davies, S.J., Itoh, A., Chai, E.O.K., Okhubo. & LaFrankie, J.V. 2002.  The 52-hectare research plot at Lambir Hills, Sarawak, Malaysia: The distribution maps, diameter tables, and species documentation.  Sarawak Forestry Department, Kuching, Malaysia; Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University, Cambridge MA.

Legros, J.-P. 2006.  Mapping the soil. Science Publishers, Enfield, NH.

Leigh, E.G. Jr 1999.  Tropical forest ecology: a view from Barro Colorado Island.  Oxford University Press, New York. xvi + 245 pp.

Leigh, E.G. Jr, Rand, A.S. & Windsor, D.M. (Eds.) 1996. The ecology of a tropical forest: seasonal rhythms and long-term changes. 2nd edition.  Smithsonian Institution Press Washington, DC. 468pp.

Leigh E.G Jr, Davidar, P., Dick, C.W., Puyravaud, J.P., Terborgh, J., ter Steege, H. & Wright, S.J.  2004.  Why do some tropical forests have so many species of trees?  Biotropica36, 447 – 473.

Leinweber, P., Preu, C. & Jankin, C. 1998.  Classification and properties of soil under different land use types in southwest Sri Lanka.  Advances in Geoecology31, 113 – 119.

MacVicar, C.N. (ed.) 1991.  Soil classification .A taxonomic system for South Africa. Second Edition. Memoir 15, Department of Agricultural Development, Pretoria.

Mapa, R. B., Somasiri, S. & Nagarajah, S. (Eds.), 1999.  Soils of the wet zone of Sri Lanka.  Special Publication 1, Soil Science Society of Sri Lanka, Colombo.

Meinzer, F.C, Andrade, J.L., Goldstein, G., Holbrook, N.M., Cavelier, J. &. Wright, S.J. 2004.  Partitioning of water among canopy trees in a seasonally dry tropical forest.  Oecologia121, 293 – 301.

Mikutta, R., Kleber, M. & Jahn, R. 2005.  Poorly crystalline minerals protect organic carbon in clay subfractions from acid subsoil horizons.  Geoderma 128 106 – 115.

Mulkey, S.S., Wright, S.J. & Smith, A.P.  1991.  Drought acclimation of an understorey shrub (Psychotria limonensis, Rubiaceae) in a seasonally dry tropical forest.  American Journal of Botany 78 579 – 587.

Naidu, R., Kirkman, J.H & Morrison, R.J. 1987. Mineralogy of soils from basaltic ash, Taveuni, Fiji.  Geoderma 39 181 – 192.

Nepstad, D.C., de Carvalho, C.R., Davidson, E.A. Jipp, P.H., Lefebra, P.A. , Negreiros, G.H., da Silva, E.D., Stone, T.A., Trumbore, S.E. & Viera, S. 1994.  The role of deep roots in the hydrological and carbon cycles of Amazonian forests and pastures.  Nature 372 666 – 669.

Nieuwenhuyse, A., Verburg, P.S.T. & Jongmans, A.G. 2005.  Mineralogy of a soil chronosequence on andesitic lava in humid tropical Costa Rica.  Geoderma98, 61 – 83.

Ocana, G., Rubinoff, I, Smythe, N. & Werner, D. 1988.  Alternatives to destruction.  Research in Panama.  In ‘Biodiversity’ (Ed. Wilson, E.O.) pp 370 – 376. National Academy of Science, Washington.

Pleysier, J.L., Juo, A.S.R. & Herbillon, A.J. 1979.  Ion exchange equilibria involving aluminum in a kaolinitic Ultisol.  Soil Science Society of America Journal, 43, 875 – 880.

Porder, S., Clark, D.A. & Vitousek, P.M. 2006.  Persistence of rock-derived nutrients in the wet tropical forests of La Selva, Cost Rica.  Ecology 87 594 – 602.

Poszwa, A., Dambrine, E., Ferry, B., Pollier, B. & Louber M. 2002.  Do deep roots provide nutrients to the tropical rainforest? Biogeochemistry 60 97 – 118.

Potts, M.D., Ashton, P.S., Kaufman, L.S. & Plotkin, J.B. 2002.  Habitat patterns in tropical rain forests:  A comparison of 105 plots in northwest Borneo.  Ecology 83: 2782 – 2797.

Pringle, C.M. 1991.  Geothermally modified waters surface at La Selva, Cost a Rica: volcanic processes introduce chemical discontinuities in lowland tropical streams.  Biotropica 23 523 – 529.

Putz, F.E., 1983.  Treefall pits and mounds, buries seeds and the importance of soil disturbance to pioneer tree species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.  Ecology 64 1069 – 1074.

Putz, F.E., Coley, P.D., Lu, K., Montalvo, A. & Aiello, A. 1983.  Uprooting and snapping of tree; Structural determinants and ecological consequences.  Canadian Journal of Forestry Research13 1011 – 1020.

Putz, F.E., Coley, P.D., Lu, A., Montalvo, A. & Aiello, A. 1985.  Uprooting and snapping of tree on Barro Colorado Island.  In ’The botany and natural history of Panama’. (Eds. W.G. D’Arcy &M.D. Correa). Missouri Botanical Gardens, St Louis, MO.  X11 + 455 pp.

Righi, D., Dinel, H., Schulten, H.-R. & Schnitzer, M. 1995.  Characterisation of clay-organic matter complexes resistant to oxidation by peroxide. European Journal of Soil Science 46 423 – 429.

Roberts, R.C. et 26 al. 1942.  Soil survey Puerto Rico. Series 1936 # 8, Bureau of Plant Industry, U S Department of Agriculture & Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Puerto Rico,

Rubinoff, I. & Leigh, E.G. Jr.1990.  Dealing with diversity: the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and tropical biology.  Trends in Ecology & Evolution 5. 115 – 118.

Russo, S.E., Davies, S.J., King, D.A. & Tan, S. 2005. Soil-related performance variation and species’ distribution patterns in a Bornean rain forest. Journal of Ecology 93: 879 – 889.

Santiago, L.S., Schuur, E.A.G. & Silvera, K. 2005.  Nutrient cycling and plant-soil feedbacks along a precipitation gradient in lowland Panama.

Schoenberger, P.J., Wysozki, D.A., Benham, E.C. & Broderson, W.D. 1998.  Field book for describing and sampling soils.  National Soil Survey Center, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Lincoln, NE.

Schwendenmann, L., Veldkamp, E., Brenes, T., O’Brien, J.J. & Mackensen, J. 2003.  Spatial and temporal variation in soil CO2 efflux in old growth tropical neotropical rainforest, La Selva, Cost Rica.  Biogeochemistry 64 111 – 128.

Schirrmeister, L.  & Störr, M. 1994.  The weathering of basaltic rocks in Burundi and Vietnam. Catena 21 243 – 256.

Sieffermann, G. & Milliot, G. 1969.  Equatorial and tropical weathering of recent basalts from Cameroon: allophane, halloysite, metahalloysite, kaolinite and gibbsite.  Pp 417 – 430 in Proceedings International Clay Conference, Tokyo(Ed. L Heller).  Israel University Press, Jerusalem.

Silver, W.L., Neff, J., McGroddy, M., Veldkamp, E., Keller, M. & Cosme, R. 2000.  Effects of soil texture on below ground carbon and nutrient storage in a lowland Amazonian rain forest.  Ecosystems 3 193 –0 209.

Soepraptohardtjo, M & Isamangun. 1980.  Classification of red soils in Indonesia by Soil Research Institute.  In:  P. Buurman ed., Red soils in Indonesia, 15 – 22. Bulletin 5.  Soil Research Institute, Bogor.

Soil Survey Staff (1975).  Soil Taxonomy.  Agricultural Handbook 436, US Department of Agriculture. Washington, DC.

Soil Survey Staff, 1993.  Soil survey manual. Handbook 18, National Resources Conservation Service, US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, USA

Soil Survey Staff, 1999. Soil Taxonomy. 2nd edition.  Agricultural Handbook 436, United States Department of Agriculture. Washington D.C.

Soil Survey Staff, 2006.  Keys to Soil Taxonomy10th edition.  United States Department of Agriculture. Washington D.C.

Sollins, P., Sancho, F., Mata, R. & Sanford, R.L. 1994.  Soils and soil process research.  In: A. McDade, K.S. Bawa, H. Hespenheide & G.S. Hartshorn,  Eds., La Selva: ecology and natural history of a neotropical rainforest, 34 – 53.  University of Chicago Press.

Sombroek, W.G. & Siderius, W. 1981.  Nitosols, a quest for significant diagnostic criteria.  pp 11 – 31 in Annual Repor’ International Soil Museum, Wageningen.

STRI 1987. The Barro Colorado Nature Monument.  Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama City.

Svenning, J.C., Kinner, D.A., Stallard, R.F., Engelbrecht, B.J.M. & Wright, S.J. 2004.  Ecological determinism in plant community structure across a tropical forest landscape.  Ecology 85 2526 – 2538.

Thompson, J., Brokaw, N., Zimmerman, J. K., Waide, R.B., Everham, E,B, & Schaefer, D. A. 2004.  Luquillo forest dynamic plot, Puerto Rico, United States.  Pp 540 – 550 in Tropical forest diversity and dynamism (Eds E.C. Losos & E.G. Leigh).  Univesity of Chicago Press, Chicago.

USGS , 1980. – see ‘Maps & Imagery ‘ below.

Veldkamp, E., Huising, E.J., Stein, A. & Bouma, J. 1990.  Variation of measured banana yields in a Costa Rica plantation as explained by soil survey and Thematic Mapper data. Geoderma 47 337 – 348.

Veldkamp, E., Becker, A., Schwendenmann, L., Cark, D.A. & Schulte-Bisping, H. 2003.  Substantial labile carbon stocks and microbial activity in deeply weathe5red soils below a trop[ical forest.  Global Change Biology 9 1171 – 1184.

Vitousek, P. 2004. Nutrient cycling and limitation, Hawai’i as a model system. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Wada, K, Henmi, T. Yoshinaga, N. & Patterson, S.H. 1972.  Imogolite and allophane formed in saprolite on basalt on Maui, Hawaii.  Clays & Clay Minerals 20 375 – 380.

Wattel-Koekkoek, E.J.W., Buurman, P., van der Plicht, J., Wattel, E. & van Breemen, N. 2003. Mean residence time of soil organic matter associated with kaolinite and smectite.  European Journal of Soil Science 54 269 – 278.

White, F. 1985.  The vegetation of Africa. United Nations Educational & Scientific Organisation, Paris.

Wieder, R.K. & Wright, S.J. 1995.  Tropical forest litter dynamics and dry season irrigation on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.  Ecology 76 1971 – 1979.

Windsor, D.M. 1990.  Climate and moisture variability in a tropical forest: long term records from Barro Colorado Island, Panama.  Smithsonian Contributions to Earth Science 29 1 –148.

Woodring, W. P. 1958. Geology of Barro Colorado Island.  Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections135 1 – 39.

Wright, A.C.S., Romney, D. H., Arbuckle, R.J. & Viall, V.N. 1959. Land in British Honduras. Research Publication 24. Colonial Office, London.

Wright, S.J & Cornejo, F.H. 1990.  Seasonal drought and leaf fall in a tropical forest.  Ecology 71 1165 – 1175.

Wright, S.J. 1991.  Seasonal drought and the phenology of understory shrubs in a tropical moist forest.  Ecology 721643 – 1657.

Wright, S.J. 1992.  Seasonal drought, soil fertility and the species’ diversity of tropical plant communities.  Trends in Ecology and Evolution 7 260 –263.

Wright, S.J., Machado, J.L., Mulkey, S.S. & Smith, A.P.  1992.  drought acclimation among tropical forest shrubs (Psychotria, Rubiaceae).  Oecologia 89 457 – 463.

Yamashita, T., Kasya, N., Kadir, W.R.., Chik, S.W.., Seng, G.E. & Okuda, T. 2003.  Soils and below ground characteristics of Pasoh Forest Reserve.  pp 89 – 109 in  Pasoh. Ecology of a lowland rain forest in Southeast Asia.(Eds T Okuda, N Manokaran, Y Matsumoto, K Niiyama, & P.S. Ashton), Springer, Tokyo.

Yavitt, J.B. 2000.  Nutrient dynamics of soil derived from different parent materials on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Biotropica 32 198 – 207.

Yavitt, J.B., Wieder, R.K. & Wright, S.J. 1993.  Soil nutrient dynamics in response to irrigation of a Panamanian tropical moist forest.  Biogeochemistry 19 1-25.

Yavitt, J.B. & Wieder, R.K. 1988.  Nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur properties of some forest soils on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.  Biotropica 20 2-10.

Yavitt, J.B. & Wright, S.J. 1996.  Temporal patterns of soil nutrients in a Panamanian moist forest revealed by ion-exchange resin and experimental irrigation.  Plant & Soil 183 117 – 129.

Yavitt, J.B. & Wright, S.J. 2001.  Drought and irrigation effects on fine root dynamics in a tropical moist forest. Biotropica 33 421 – 434,

Yavitt, J.B. & Wright, S.J. 2002.  Charge characteristics of soil in a lowland tropical moist forest in Panama in response to dry-season irrigation.  Australian Journal of Soil Research 40 269 – 281.,

Yavitt, J.B. & Wright, S.J. & Wieder, R.K 2004.  Seasonal drought and dry season irrigation influence leaf litter, nutrients and soil enzymes in a moist lowland forest in Panama.  Australian Ecology 29 177 – 188.

Young, A. 1976.  Tropical soils and soil survey.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.


Maps & imagery

ARI, 1996. Land use and natural resources 1:125 000. Autoridade Regional Inter-oceanico, Panama.

Catapan, 1970.  Soil maps 1:100 000 & 1:20 000. Jacobs & Co for CRA-Catapan, MIDA, Santiago, Panama.

Google Earth, 2007.

IGN 1975.  National Atlas.  Instituto Geografico Nacional Tommy Guardia, Panama.

IGN 1984.  1:50 000 topographic sheets based on US Army Map Service 1:25 000 (1963) series.  Instituto Geografico Nacional Tommy Guardia, Panama.

RoP,1996. Protected ares in the Canal Zone 1:375 000. Republic of Panama.

RoP, 1970.  Ecological map of Panama.  1:500 000.  Republic of Panama & United Nations Development Programme.

USGS , 1980. Geologic map of the Panama Canal and vicinity, Republic of Panama.  Map I-1232.  US Geological Survey, Washington DC.