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Abbreviations Definition
asl Above sea level
AvK Available potassium
AvP Available Phosphate
AWC Available water capacity (amount of water held in soil at suctions in the range for root uptake; = MC%@ FC – MC% @PWP)
BCI Barro Colorado Island
BCNM Barro Colorado Nature Monument
BS% Base saturation percentage (=TEB/CEC)
C Clay.  Finest size class of mineral particles (< 0.002 mm)
Catapan Catastro de Panama (CRA)
CEC Cation exchange capacity (conventionally determined at pH7)
CL Clay loam
COLE Coefficient of linear extension (%)
Colluvium Local hillwash, moved by overland flow and slow creep.
Complex Soil mapping unit with several co-dominant classes.
Consociation Soil mapping unit with one soil class dominant and others as minor constituents.
CRA Comision de Reforma Agraria (MIDA)
Creep Slow gravitational mass movement of colluvium downslope.
CTFS Center for Tropical Forest Science
C/V Chroma and value in Munsell Soil Color coding system
Dbh, drh Diameter at breast (1.3 m above ground level) or reference (0.6 m above the highest buttress) height
EBS Effective base saturation (= TEB/ECEC as %)
ECEC Effective cation exchange capacity (=TEB + Extr Al)
Eluvial Soil horizon formed by the selective washing out of some original components
Exch Exchangeable cations extractable with 1M NH4OOCH3
Extr Extractable with 1M KCl
FAO Food & Agriculture Organisation of United Nations
FC Field capacity (MC% at suction of 0.1 or 0.3 atmosphere)
Fine earth Fraction of soil with particle size < 2mm
gibb Gibbsite (Al2O3 clay mineral)
gilgai Dynamic soil surface undulations due to shrink-swell of expansible clays in seasonal climates
GIS Geographical information system
Gley Soil that is permanently wet and poorly aerated, with predominantly greyish colours, due to the reduction of free iron. May have locally oxidised rust – coloured mottles as spots and around root channels.
GPS Global positioning system
HAC High activity clay
Horizon Soil layer
Hydrature Supply of air and water to biota by soil pore system (sensu White, 1985)
ICP Induction coupled plasma spectrometer
IGN Instituto Geografico Nacional, Tommy Guardia
Illuvial Soil horizon formed by enrichment of some components washed in from eluvial horizon(s) above
Kaol Kaolinite (1:1 aluminosilicate clay mineral)
L Loam (Mixed soil with substantial proportions of all three of the main fine earth size classes, i.e. clay, silt and sand)
LAC Low activity clay
Linear Straight slope with similar gradients up- and downslope
LTER Long term ecological research
MC% Moisture content % (by mass)
MIDA Ministerio de Desarollo Agropecuaria (RoP)
Munsell System of soil colour notation, operated by matching soil against standard colour chips. Colour described by ‘hue’ (Spectral composition – red, yellow, blue, green); ‘value’ (dilution with multispectral white), & ‘chroma’ (darkness)
ND No data
NH4OOCH3 Ammonium acetate (1M, buffered at pH 7, for extracting exchangeable cations)
OC Organic carbon
PM Soil parent material
Profile Sequence of soil horizons from surface to parent material
PWP Permanent wilting [point (soil moisture suction of 15 atmospheres = 1.5 MPa)
Regolith All surface materials; includes solum (true soil), saprolite (in situ weathered rock), and mobile materials like colluvium or alluvium.
RoP Republic of Panama
S Sand (coarsest fine earth particle size class, 0.05 – 2 mm in USDA)
Series Equivalent to soil class on BCI. Sixth level of subdivision in USDA Soil Taxonomy.
SI Smithsonian Institution
Si Silt (intermediate fine earth mineral particle size class, 0.002 – 0.05 mm in USDA)
Slickenside Striated, polished clay pressure face, usually oblique, on prismatic or wedge structures in expansible clay subsoils. Diagnostic of vertic properties and Vertisols in ST.
SMR Soil Moisture Regime, as defined in ST
SMU Soil mapping unit
SOC Soil organic carbon
Solum True soil, in which physicochemical and bio-turbation processes have obliterated visible traces of parent rock structure.
SOM Soil organic matter
ST Soil Taxonomy (USDA system of soil classification)
STR Soil temperature regime, as defined in ST
STRI Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
Surface wash Movement of detached surface soil particles by overland flow.
Tr Trace
Tufa Hard coating of secondary CaCO3
TEB Total exchangeable bases (= exchangeable Ca + Mg + Na + K)
USDA United States Department of Agriculture
WRB World Reference Base for Soil Resources (FAO system of soil classification)
XRD X-ray diffraction (for determination of clay minerals)
Z, Zi Silt (intermediate fine earth particle size class, 0.002 – 0.05 mm in USDA)